Alma Maria Mahler-Werfel (née Schindler) (August 31, 1879 – December 11, 1964) was noted in her native Vienna for her beauty and intelligence. She was the wife, successively, of the composer Gustav Mahler, architect Walter Gropius, and novelist Franz Werfel, and lover to the painter Oskar Kokoschka. She was also a composer.
Born in Vienna, Austria, to the prominent landscape painter Emil Jakob Schindler and his wife Anna von Bergen, in 1879, Alma grew up in a privileged environment. After her father's death (1892), her mother married her late husband's former pupil Carl Moll, who was a co-founder of the Vienna Secession.
Alma's lively social interactions in her youth included ...more