Leoš Janáček: Katya Kabanova

  • Opera in 3 acts (1921)
  • 4 3 3 3 - 4 3 3 1 - timp, perc(2), hp, cel, vla.d'a, str
  • Duration: 105’
  • Instrumentation details:
    1st flute
    2nd flute
    3rd flute (+picc)
    4th flute (+picc)
    1st oboe
    2nd oboe
    3rd oboe (+cor anglais)
    1st clarinet in Bb
    2nd clarinet in Bb
    3rd clarinet in Bb (+bass cl(Bb))
    1st bassoon
    2nd bassoon
    3rd bassoon (+cbsn)
    1st horn in F
    2nd horn in F
    3rd horn in F
    4th horn in F
    1st trumpet in F
    2nd trumpet in F
    3rd trumpet in F
    1st trombone
    2nd trombone
    3rd trombone
    tuba
    timpani
    percussion(2)
    celesta
    harp
    viola d'amore
    violin I
    violin II
    viola
    violoncello
    contrabass;
  • Choir: Bürger beiderlei Geschlechts
  • Roles: Savjol Prokofjewitsch Dikoj, a merchant, bass Boris Grigorjewitsch, his nephew, tenor Marfa Ignatjewna Kabanowa (Kabanicha), a rich merchant's widow, alto Tichon Ivanytsch Kabanoff, her son, tenor Katherina (Katja), his wife, soprano Wanja Kudrjasch, teacher, chemist and engineer, tenor Barbara, foster-child in the Kabanov household, mezzo-soprano Kuligin, friend of Kudrjasch, baritone Glascha, female servant, mezzo-soprano Fekluscha, female servant, mezzo-soprano Late-night passer-by, silent Woman from the crowd, alto
  • Composer: Leoš Janáček
  • Librettist: Leoš Janáček
  • Writer of pre-existing text: Alexander Nikolajewitsch Ostrowski
  • Piano reduction: Bretislav Bakala
  • Editor: Karl Heinz FüsslSir Charles Mackerras
  • Original language: Czech
  • Translator: Max BrodVincenc CervinkaNorman TuckerMichel AnceyReinhold SchubertUte BeckerAlena Wagnerová

Work introduction

„I feel sorry for her,” Varvara sings in the first act of Janá?ek’s sixth opera Katja Kabanowa. And this feeling of compassion with a psychically-tortured woman could be a motto of many of his operas. Most of Janá?ek’s operas deal with individuals oppressed by socially determined facts and conventions, and if they try to resist it often brings fatal consequences.

Janá?ek decided to musicalize The Tempest (Bou?e) by Ostrovský probably around the beginning of 1919. It was not surprising that he chose a Russian theme, as Janá?ek was a cofounder of the Russian Circle in Brno, loved Russian culture and often found inspiration in Russian literature. As soon as the question of using a translation by Vincenc ?ervinka was resolved, Janá?ek started working. He adapted the whole drama by himself. The première of the opera took place in November 23, 1921, in the National Theatre in Brno under the baton of František Neumann. Almost one year later on November 30, 1922, Katja Kabanowa was staged in the National Theatre in Prague, conducted by Otakar Ostr?il. The success was immense, even though reviewers pointed out, that “the crucial mistake was that the opera did not have a fast flowing story”. In 1927 Janá?ek decided to resolve the connections of individual scenes in the first and second acts by changing the score. He added short interludes into both acts that made it possible to rebuild the scene without interrupting the music flow and thus to interconnect individual scenes. They were restored by Sir Charles Mackerras, who also put them into the newly-published score of the opera.

Katja Kabanowa represents an intimate and lyrical example of a lonely human being and a personal tragedy with no empty or pathetic gestures. It is a story which may be happening even today to our neighbours. This may be why this work still appeals to us, and thanks to its musical production it belongs among the most impressive musical tragedies the 20th century brought.

Ji?í Zahrádka

Audiosamples

The complete perusal score (PDF-preview)

Next performances

World première

Location:
Národni divadlo (National Theatre), Brno (CZ)
Date:
23.11.1921
Conductor:
Neumann František

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