b. Kowal, Poland
composer, singer, teacher of singing, jurist
As of 1933, publishers refrained from issuing Kowalski’s compositions. He was a recognised copyright and patent lawyer until 1938, when his licence was revoked and he was taken to Buchenwald concentration camp. May Jews were under similar pressure, forcing them to emigrate. When he was released, he immigrated to London with his daughter in 1939. Although his wife Anna Kowalski already had immigration papers for Great Britain, she took her own life after having survived three concentration camps.