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Arvo Pärt

Fratres

for guitar, string orchestra and percussion

Composed in Pärt's very own Tintinnabuli-style, Fratres allows many different settings because it is not bound to a specific timbre.“The highest virtue of music, for me, lies outside of its mere sound. The particular timbre of an instrument is part of the music, but it is not the most important element. If it were, I would be surrendering to the essence of the music. Music must exist of itself … two, three notes … the essence must be there, independent of the instruments.” (Arvo Pärt)

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„I feel sorry for her,” Varvara sings in the first act of Janá?ek’s sixth opera Katja Kabanowa. And this feeling of compassion with a psychically-tortured woman could be a motto of many of his operas. Most of Janá?ek’s operas deal with individuals oppressed by socially determined facts and conventions, and if they try to resist it often brings fatal consequences. Janá?ek decided to musicalize The Tempest (Bou?e) by Ostrovský probably around the beginning of 1919. It was not surprising that he chose a Russian theme, as Janá?ek was a cofounder of the Russian Circle in Brno, loved Russian culture and often found inspiration in Russian literature. As soon as the question of using a translation by Vincenc ?ervinka was resolved, Janá?ek started working. He adapted the whole drama by himself. The première of the opera took place in November 23, 1921, in the National Theatre in Brno under the baton of František Neumann. Almost one year later on November 30, 1922, Katja Kabanowa was staged in the National Theatre in Prague, conducted by Otakar Ostr?il. The success was immense, even though reviewers pointed out, that “the crucial mistake was that the opera did not have a fast flowing story”. In 1927 Janá?ek decided to resolve the connections of individual scenes in the first and second acts by changing the score. He added short interludes into both acts that made it possible to rebuild the scene without interrupting the music flow and thus to interconnect individual scenes. They were restored by Sir Charles Mackerras, who also put them into the newly-published score of the opera. Katja Kabanowa represents an intimate and lyrical example of a lonely human being and a personal tragedy with no empty or pathetic gestures. It is a story which may be happening even today to our neighbours. This may be why this work still appeals to us, and thanks to its musical production it belongs among the most impressive musical tragedies the 20th century brought. Ji?í Zahrádka

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Like the Op. 9 Bagatelles, these orchestra pieces have a complicated origin. Two of them (nos. 1 and 4) were written in 1911, the other three in 1913, along with a larger number – some merely sketched, some completed, and some including a singing voice. Webern conducted the premiere in Zurich in 1926.The instrumental forces of Op. 10 are actually a chamber orchestra: the winds and strings one-to-a-part and the small complement of instruments never used in full. The use of harmonium, mandolin, guitar, celesta, bells and cowbells were certainly suggested by Mahler (Symphonies 6 through 8), whom Webern passionately admired. As with the Bagatelles written at the same time, everything is reduced to its essentials; the fourth piece, only six bars long, is the shortest one Webern ever composed, and only the last one, 31 bars long, attains the dimensions of Opp. 5 and 6. However, everything here has become quieter, subcutaneous. Schönberg’s notion of Klangfarbenmelodie doubtless plays a certain part in the orchestration; for example, the thrice-repeated F at the end of the first piece is scored differently each time: first, the flute alone, then flute and muted trumpet, then trumpet alone and finally celesta. These pieces are surely among the most beautiful and disciplined of all Webern’s works. Manfred Angerer

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